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Improving Student’s Writing Skill

Through Mind Mapping


SMK PGRI 9 Ngawi
August, 2012


1. Judul Penelitian         :   Improving Students Writing Skill Through Mind Mapping.

2.  Peneliti
a. Nama Lengkap       :   
b. Jenis Kelamin         :   
c. Pangkat/Gol. NIP   :  
d. Mata Pelajaran       :   Bahasa Inggris
e. Institusi/ Sekolah   :   SMK PGRI 9 Ngawi
f.  Alamat                   :   
g. No, Rekening         :  
h. Bank                      :  

3.  Lama Penelitian             :   4 Bulan
dari                            :   Bulan Agustus sampai
                                      Bulan Nopember

4.  Biaya                         :   Rp. 5.000.000,-
                                          (lima juta rupiah)

Kepala SMK PGRI 9 Ngawi






Proposal of Classroom Action Research

A. TITLE                                   :    Improving Students’ Writing Skill Through Mind Mapping
B. FOCUS OF THE STUDY   :    Teaching and  Learning Strategy (Developing the strategy of mind mapping to improve the students’ writing skill).


              The global era of information triggers people to demand a means of communication much more than it used to be. This leads a foreign language, especially English, to play an important role in almost every field of matter. Education is no exception. It is no wonder that Indonesian education also anticipates all the possibilities in the era by improving its human resource. Due to the important role of English in the global era, the techniques of teaching English, which has been a compulsory subject in the high school curriculum for many years, have continually developed. The aim is to provide young generation with the knowledge and skill of using English so that they are able to keep up with the advance of science and technology.
              Many efforts have been attempted to have a good achievement of learning English. The English syllabus, for instance, has been designed to focus on the use of the language in communication rather than the study of the language it self. The teaching and learning English are expected to enable  the learners to use English as a means of communication in written and spoken forms.
              Writing as a means of written communication is badly demanded. It is a learners’ need which cannot be put aside in the era of high competition. Advanced technology cannot reduce the importance of writing. It helps fulfill the need to communicate with other people. As a means of self-expression, it is obviously required by t he school levers. Writing is a vehicle for thought. It plays an important facilitative role in the development of thinking (Olson, 1992).
              Writing in English is unavoidable. The fact shows that learning to write English is still as a major educational undertaking throughout the world (Freedman, Pringle, Yalden 1983 in Harjanto 1999). English is the dominant language of the Internet as well as in business communication. Today, the importance of English as the global language encourages more and more people to learn to write in English for occupational or academic purposes (White, in Long, 1987).
              In line with the purpose, the new curriculum of English for SMA (Competence Based Curriculum, 2004) is aimed at developing the learners’ communicative competence through spoken and written language. As a skill of communicating ideas, therefore, writing needs improving on the part of the learners so as to enable them to compete in the global era of information. According to this new curriculum, all of  the strategies of steps of teaching and learning are focused on the process to achieve the learning objective, i.e. to use the target language as a means of communication. Involving the students in the learning process is worth doing. In the process of writing, for instance, the students should be involved in the writing activities such as generating ideas, drafting, revising, and editing.
              Providing the students with a good writing skill is worth while, but the fact shows that the students have a low ability in writing. The low ability is due to some reasons. Based on the teaching experience, when students are asked to write an essay, they often do not know what to begin. They take a long time before they start to write. They delay writing so as to fill the time available. This procrastination strategy makes the students take a long time in writing. They get difficulty to discover what to write for the target topic. In this case, the content is the very first problem the students have in writing.
              In daily practice, the teaching and learning of writing in SMA so far has been done by giving a model and asking the students to write the one similar to the model. The students just copy and make some changes in the model. In this case, writing is only a matter of grammar practices. The students are not given chances to communicate their ideas through writing. Besides, the students are not involved in the writing activities such as generating ideas, revising, and editing the draft. The strategy of teaching writing does not provide the students with a real writing situation in which they have to undergo the process of  writing such as generating and organizing ideas, drafting, revising, and editing. Consequently, the students get difficulty to express their ideas and feelings on a paper because they have no strategy to get ideas and organize them into paragraphs in writing.
              In response to the fore-mentioned problems in writing, the researcher proposes mind mapping to solve the problems of writing. The researcher believes that the technique is applicable to teaching writing which can improve the students’ writing ability.

              This sub-topic will discuss the problem, solution, objective, and significance of the study.

     1.  Statement of Research Problem
                   Based on the background, the main problem of this study is ‘How can students’ writing skill be improved through mind mapping? This study is directed to develop a strategy of mind mapping in the writing classes, which is expected to improve the students’ skill of writing.
          This study is also expected to answer the problems such as :
1.    How far can mind mapping improve the students’ writing skill ?
2.    How can mind mapping be developed so as to improve the students’ writing skill ?
3.    How is the classroom atmosphere when the students are applying mind mapping in writing instruction ?

     2.  The Solution of The Problem
                   The main problem of writing in this study deals with the content and organization. The problem will be solved by developing the strategy of mind mapping (clustering), following the procedure of  classroom action research (CAR). This CAR will be conducted in 2 cycles. Each cycle consists of steps – planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting and it will be done in three meetings. The success of failure of each cycle in solving the problem will be determined by criteria related to the students’ achievement in writing. In this study, the students’ work will be scored analytically, considering the components of content and organization. The details of this sub-topic will be discussed in research methodology.

     3.  The Objective of the Study
                   Derived from the above question, the study is aimed at developing a strategy of mind mapping in writing instruction to improve of the students’ writing ability.

     4.  Significance of the Study
                   In line with the objective, the result of this study is expected to be beneficial for students as well as the teachers. It is expected that the students will use mind mapping as a strategy to generate ideas so that they can tackle any writing situation encountered in job or school. To teachers, this study hopefully solves the problem of generating ideas in teaching writing which enables teachers to improve the students’ skill of writing.
              Writing is associated with the use of words, appropriate grammar, mechanics, and organization of ideas into coherent and cohesive form (Gebhard, 1996). To prepare to write, we will make a list, sketch, or cluster of ideas related to the topic we are going to write. Then we start writing. Writing activities in the classroom vary depending on the students’ levels. As post beginners, senior high school students are necessarily provided with the ones leading to communicating ideas rather to a language practice.
              Writing also aids learning (Gere, 1992). When we write, we unlikely come directly to a ‘ready to read’ product. Choosing a topic, collecting ideas for the topic, organizing the ideas, selecting appropriate words and grammar, and thinking about the mechanics are recursive steps before yielding an essay. To have a ‘readable’ article, a writer is required to consider the rhetorical conventions so as to meet the purpose – to get across the message. All these testify that learning accompanies writing. In other words, learning occurs in the process of writing. Even, writing will lead to the discovery of new ideas and to seeing a new relationship.
              Writing is a learned behavior (Brown, 2001). We do not learn to write naturally. To write needs a process. When we write something, let’s say a letter, we go through a process of creating and recreating this piece of writing until we discover what we want to say in the letter. In addition, it involves invention and inquiry. Asking questions and inquiring about something we want to write occur as we write. We make use of what we know and have learned to yield a piece of writing.
              Writing is a process of discovery of meaning (Zamel, 1976). Through the process, the meaning is created. It implies that composition instruction should emphasize the importance of generating, formulating, and refining one’s ideas. This act of discovery is the main feature of the writing process. This process covers several stages, such as rehearsing, drafting, and revising. Pre writing is the stage of getting ready to write (Tompkins, 1990). Although pre-writing is often neglected, it occupies 70% or more of time writing (Murray, 1982). This stage is time for the writer to decide, gather ideas, and organize the ideas. Prewritting can be introduced through a variety of activities, one of which is using a visual representation of ideas. This representation is a writing plan. It refers to an expression of the ‘writer then’ which has the dual purpose of mapping out the structure of the intended text and acting as a guide to composing (Sharples, 1999). Mind mapping is often helpful to represent explicit links between ideas.
              A mind or concept mapping (Stewart, Vankirk & Rowell, 1979 in Willerman & Harg 1991) is an excellent device that visually represents the hierarchical relationship between concepts within the structure or segment of a discipline. A concept map provides teachers with guidance in how to show important ideas. It also helps the students organize knowledge into a hierarchical structure in which subordinate concepts are subsumed under super-ordinate concepts.
              According to Axelrod (1985), mind mapping is a way to explore a topic which starts with a thought or word. This word map illustrates the relationship between ideas so as to allow the students to develop them into an essay more easily. Representing ideas visually, it goes without saying that this technique encourages the students to want to write. Once the strategy becomes familiar, it helps learners to handle any writing they face in college or on jobs. In terms of discovering ideas, mind mapping is worth applying in the process of writing. It allows the teachers to involve the students in the process of writing such as in pre, whilst, and post writing activities. In this case, the students are treated as the subject rather than the object in the teaching and learning process. Mind mapping is a condensed visual presentation of thinking and planning. It is often used by writers to help them think about a topic.
              Mind mapping is a type of writing plans which enables to overcome restrictions of linear lists. By mapping out, ideas can be explicitly linked (Sharples, 1999). Mind mapping is an orderly method of concept planning. Sketching a central image to illustrate the main topic and then draw the main themes in branches can create a mind map. On each branch, a key word or phrase is written and the less central ideas or topics are connected to the main ones by smaller branches.
              Mind mapping involves making a visual record of invention and inquiry (Axelrod, 1985). Writers make use of mapping to help them think about a topic. The map represents ideas, details, and facts. Mapping can be very useful because it visually shows our thinking and planning. Mapping is one of techniques for gathering ideas. It is very helpful when we want to narrow our topic (Simon and Schuster, 1987). Mind mapping is also called webbing which is much like brainstorming. But it is more visual and linear. Many writers find that mind mapping enables them to think more creatively and associates ideas more easily.
              Mind mapping can be very useful because it visually shows our thinking and planning. It is very helpful when we want to generate the ideas for our topic (Simon and Schuster, 1987). Mind mapping is also called webbing which is much like brainstorming, but it is more visual and linear. Many writers find that mind mapping enables them to think more creatively and associates ideas more easily. By using mind mapping, the students are likely encouraged to create or discover as many ideas as they can.
              Mind mapping as a technique to generate and structure ideas for writing helps students achieve higher level of creativity, clearer organization of thoughts, increased concentration, and more concise communications (Patrick, 1996). A mind map lets us rapidly produce an almost infinite number of ideas, and at the same time organize them by placing each idea next to what it is related.
              Mind mapping strategies include clustering, listing, and outlining. Clustering is almost like drawing a map of thoughts, using circles, lines, arrows, and words. It is an invention activity which reveals possible relation among facts and ideas (Tompkins, 1991). Clustering comes up with a tentative division of the topic into subparts or main ideas. The process of clustering is similar to brainstorming, except all the words (ideas) generated are circled and linked to a nucleus word. The result is a web-like diagram rather than a list.
              Clustering is an invention activity which represents possible relations among facts and ideas. Unlike the other types, clustering requires a brief period of initial planning. It comes up with a tentative division of the topic into subparts or main ideas. Clustering works, according to Axelrod (1985 : 67) as follows :
              1.  In a word or phrase, the topic is written in the center of a piece of paper and it is circled.
              2.  Also in a word or phrase, the main parts or central ideas of the topic are written. These are also circled and connected to the topic in the center.
              3.  The next step, facts, details, examples, or ideas are related to the main parts of the topic.

              The figure below shows an example of developing a topic through clustering. The topic is developed by discussing each main part or idea with its examples, facts, and details in order. When the first main part or idea is completely developed, it is followed by the second and then the third main part or idea. The order can be based on the degree of the importance and the logic of the ideas.

          Clustering offers a way of relating drawing and writing (Gere, 1992). Some writers find it necessary to draw ideas for writing. When they get stuck, they often turn back to drawing again and continue sketching until new ideas for writing take shape. Clustering is a graphic form which allows the writers to avoid linearity of putting one word after another in line after line. To begin clustering, a word or phrase is written in the center and draw a circle around it. When we think of a related idea, we can writer it in a word or phrase and draw a line between it and the topic in the center. As we think of subtopics or details, we can add them to the cluster. To generate ideas for education, for example, we make clustering like in Figure 2.
              In terms of assessment of writing, Madsen (1983) points out the numerous factors that can be evaluated in a single a piece of writing. The teacher, however, has to consider several limiting factors to check students’ composition. The reasons are to help teachers grade accurately and consistently, to speed up grading the essay, and to avoid unnecessary discouragement of the students.
              Generally, there are three types of rating scales in scoring writing. They are holistic, primary trait, and analytic scoring (Cohen 1994; Herman, Aschbacher, and Winter 1992; Perkins 1983 in O’ Malley 1996).
              Holistic scoring uses a variety of criteria to produce a single score. This scoring system views writing as an integrated whole and emphasizes the total quality of written text rather than the sum of its components. The holistic scoring rubric may cover content, organization, structure or language, vocabulary, and mechanics.
              Primary trait is a variation of holistic scoring which focuses on a particular trait or feature the students have to demonstrate in their writing. The feature can be one or more of the criteria for holistic scoring such as organization, language, word choice, or mechanics. The advantage of this approach is to focus on specific aspects of instruction which reflect the objective of the writing task given.
              The analytic scoring evaluates the various components of writing separately. The separate components are given a different weight depending on the degree of the importance. The total score is sum of the weighted components. Separate scores are assigned to components such as composing, style, sentence formation, usage, and mechanics. According to Weir (1993), analytic mark schemes are devised in an attempt to make the assessment more objective insofar as they encourage the examiners to be more explicit about their impression of the students’ composition. They are normally concerned with describing the qualities in which an essay is expected to exhibit. Analytic marking caters for the communicative effectiveness and accuracy in the students’ written production. It takes accounts of criteria in terms of content, organization, language, and mechanics which are seen as the most suitable for assessing writing tasks. Each criterion in analytic marking scheme is sub-divided into certain behavioral levels on a scale of, for example, 0-3. A level 3 corresponds to very few problems in the writing tasks demanded in this criterion. A level 2 refers to a limited number of problems. A level 1 indicates that a lot of problems. A level 0 indicates almost total incompetence in their papers.

              This classroom action research is designed to improve the students’ writing skill by using mind mapping. It will be carried out in 2 cycles, each of which consists of three meetings. If the action in the first cycle does not solve the problem yet or the criteria of success are not achieved, it will be continued to next cycle with the revised action plan. The setting, subject, and procedure of the study will be discussed as follows.

     1.  Setting and Subject of the Study
                   The study will be carried out at SMAN 2 Bojonegoro. The subjects of the study are the second year students of language program in the academic year of 2012-2007. The class consists of forty students and all of them are taken as the subjects. One of the reasons in choosing this class as the subjects of the study is that the students have the same interest, i.e. learning foreign languages. In this program, they learn English and Japanese. In addition, this class has more time for English than the other classes do.

     2.  The Procedure of the Study
                   The model of Action Research developed by Kemmis and McTaggart (1982) will be adopted in this study. It is a sequence of steps-planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The reflection will be based on the findings during the observation and compared to the pre-determined criteria of success. The result of the reflection will be used to determine the planning for the next cycle. The cycle will continue to the next one with the same steps until the target is achieved. The procedure of this classroom action research is described in Figure 3.
                   Planning will cover designing the strategy of developing the appropriate model of mind mapping, preparing lesson plans, preparing the research instruments, and preparing the criteria of success. The model of mind mapping in this study will be presented through two stages : (1) introducing the strategy of mind mapping by giving clustering as an example of mind mapping, (2) providing practices for applying the strategy of mind mapping in writing assignments. It is necessarily noted that in this study, the students will be directed to write compositions for the text types of Report or Expositions as suggested in the syllabus. The model of developing the strategy of mind mapping will be implemented based on the prepared lesson plans. Furthermore, observation checklists, the students’ portfolio, interview guides, and field notes will be used to obtain the required data. Then, the data will be analyzed on the basis of the criteria of success including (1) a good writing achievement (when the mean is equal to or more than 75 and (2) students’ active participation in the leaning process

                   Implementing refers to the procedure of putting the plans into action. The action will be carried out in 2 cycles, each of which is in three meetings following the procedure of pre-activity (generating ideas), whilst-activity (drafting), and post writing activities (revising and editing). Pre-writing will be intended to motivate and brainstorm the ideas for the target topic. The researcher will lead the students to generate the ideas by using clustering. Drafting (in whilst activities) is aimed at giving the students chance to start writing the first draft based on the discovered ideas. In this activity, the students will be assigned to begin their essay by developing each main idea with its details into a paragraph. To write the draft, the students will be advised not care much about the language. Post writing will give the students opportunities to check their work before they write it for the final draft. They will be assigned to delete unnecessary points, give additional details or reorganize the ideas. Here, the student will be advised to work in pairs to proofread each other’s work. After proofreading, they will edit their own work and revise it for the final version.
                   Cycle 1. Meeting 1 is intended to introduce the strategy of mind mapping by giving clustering as an example. The writing assignments given to the students will be focused on the text type of exposition. In this case, the topic of Natural Disaster will be given as an example of the target topic. In Pre Writing, the students will be encouraged to write an essay about Natural Disaster. To get what to write, the topic will be written down and circled on the board. Brainstorming will be done to reach the purpose. First, a leading question will be given. The question will be ‘If you want to write ‘Natural Disasters’, what factors are covered? Strong students actively give the answers such as rainfall, rubbish disposal, homeless, hunger, earthquakes, etc. Then, the students’ answer will be classified according to its cluster. In this case, the researcher will help them by giving questions (1) Can you group your answers into three categories?, (2) In what category can you group ‘rainfall, rubbish, active volcanoes’?, (3) What about homeless, hunger?, (4) What about flood, earthquake? Based on the student’s responses, the researcher will help cluster them into its categories so that mind mapping in the form of clustering will be like the one illustrated in the following figure.
              With the help of the clustered ideas, the students will be directed to write the ideas in a logical order. In drafting, the students will be assigned to write a draft. The students will be advised to use the clustered ideas as an outline for writing the essay. To encourage the students to write, the researcher will tell them not to care much about the language. They just let the ideas flow on their paper items required in the target essay. Furthermore, in post writing, all the students will be encouraged to work in pairs to proofread and edit their work in terms of content and organization_ Here, the students' activities will be controlled to see whether they have a problem. After they finish proofreading and editing their work, they will be assigned to write it for the final draft.
              Meeting 2 is aimed at providing an opportunity far the students to essay. The students will be required to apply the strategy to write an essay about profession. As prewriting activities, the researcher will write down the theme for the essay on the board. Then, the students' ideas will be elicited for the topics. The students will be asked to choose one of the topics they suggest. As done in the previous meeting, when the students are ready with the title, they are supposed to make an outline for the essay. In this case, the students will be ordered to apply mind mapping to generate and organize ideas for the target topic. With the outline, they will be ready to write the first draft. While drafting, they should think of the content and the organization. The attention will be focused on the flow of the ideas on the paper. Then, in post writing, they will have to work in pairs for proofreading and editing. They are supposed to help each other especially for the content and organization. Before they have a final draft, they need to revise it. When the final draft is ready, they will submit it to the researcher.
              Meeting 3 is to provide more chance for the students to use the strategy of mind mapping in writing an essay with the topic of their own. They may choose any topic of their interest and they have to decide the topic, content, and organization by themselves. In prewriting, the students will be encouraged to think about the topic of their interest. When they are ready with the topic, they will begin to consider the ideas likely to be developed in the paragraphs of the essay. If the students are ready with their mapped ideas, they will be suggested to use them as an outline for their essay and start writing a draft. On the basis of clustered or mapped ideas, they are expected to write down what they have in their mind and let the ideas flow on the paper. As usually done, having finished their draft, the students will work in pairs to improve their draft. After proofreading, they will edit and revise their %wk for the final draft., and then submit it to the researcher.
              Cycle 2. This cycle will be done when the action in cycle 1 do not achieve the criteria of success. There will be some aspects or criteria of success such as the problems of content and organization which should be achieved in cycle l . The action in cycle 2 will be conducted based on the revised lesson plans. In this cycle, the students will be directed to write essays of report text type. The implementation of the action in the second cycle will not be different from that in cycle 1 in terms of the objective and the steps- pre, whilst, and post writing activities. Prewriting activities will focus on generating ideas, whilst writing on drafting the article, and past writing on the revision through peer work. The objective will be to provide practices using the or mind mapping to improve the students' writing ability. If cycle 2 is to be conducted, the procedure will be the same as that in cycle 1. The difference only lies an the target topics the students will choose. The procedure will be described as follows.
              In meeting l, 2, and 3 in this cycle , the students will be assigned to write a composition of report text type. They will have to choose the topic under the text type. More control will be focused on drafting. It is done to ensure the content and the organization of the ideas. Then, the students will discover or generate the ideas according to the topic. Afterwards, they will have to develop the generated ideas into paragraphs. After drafting, the students are supposed to work in pairs far proofreading which focuses an the content and the organization.
              Observing will be conducted to record and collect data about the aspects or events which will occur during the teaching and learning process. In this step, the way of implementing the strategy of mind mapping will be observed to know which the criteria of success are already achieved or what aspects of the instructional strategy should be improved in the next cycle. In addition, the students' achievement in writing will be analyzed. To conduct an accurate observation and to get the required data, the observation checklists, the students' portfolio, interview guides, and field notes will be required.
              Observation checklists will be needed to observe the activities done by the students as well as the teacher (researcher) during the implementation of mind mapping in writing classes. In this case, `Yes' and 'No' responses are needed to mark the presence and absence of the aspects being observed.
              Portfolios, as the collections of the students' compositions, will be used to know the students' writing ability and to see their progress in it. The students' compositions will be collected at the end of every writing assignment. The data obtained from this instrument will be in the form of scores.
              Interview guides will be used to explore the students' opinion an the strategy of mind mapping in writing. They will be also needed to know whether or not the strategy is helpful to solve their problem of writing. The interview will be done after the students finish doing the writing tasks.
              Meanwhile, field notes will be prepared to note down some aspects of the teaching and learning activities which are not covered in the observation checklists. The aspects will include the appropriateness of the writing tasks, the practicality and ease of the strategy, and the students' attitudes and problems during the implementation of the strategy.
              The data obtained from the above instruments will be used to provide information of what aspects of the target that are already achieved and of those that should be revised.
              Reflecting is the step in which the data collected through the observation will be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The information derived from the data analysis will be compared with the criteria of success to see haw much the strategy will successfully solve the problem or what criteria of success are not achieved yet.
              Quantitative data will be obtained from the students' writing assignments. The students' compositions will be checked and scared by considering the components of content and organization. In this case, the analytical scoring method  with the marking scheme adapted from Weir (1993: 160) will be used. Each component will be scaled 0-3. For content, ‘a’ means incomprehensible and irrelevant content, ‘1’ quite comprehensible content but containing irrelevant information, ‘2’ comprehensible content but rather simple development, and ‘3’ relevant and adequately developed content. Meanwhile, for the component of organization, V means no apparent organization of content, I very little organization of content, ‘2’ some organization of content, but not adequately controlled, and ‘3’ overall shape, clear internal pattern, and adequately controlled organization. 
     To get the mean, the students' scores will be added and then the sum will be divided by the number of the scores. The obtained mean will be used to determine whether the first criterion is met or not.
              The qualitative data deal with the students' and teacher's performance recorded in the observation checklists and field notes. The data will be inductively analyzed to get a conclusion, i.e. whether or not they are actively participate in the classroom activities. The target behaviors will be clearly described in the observation checklists ( See the appendix 2 ).
              The result of bath qualitative and quantitative analysis will be interpreted on the basis of the pre-determined criteria. The interpretation will be used to draw a conclusion whether the action stops or needs improving. If the action meets the criteria of success, it will stop. Otherwise, the drawbacks are identified far further revised plan.
              Meanwhile, success of each cycle in this study will be based on two criteria­ The first criteria will be determined by the students' writing achievement. The writing achievement will be considered ‘good’ if the mean is equal to or more than 75. The mean 75 is based on 'Petunjuk Teknis Penilaian' Curriculum 20 second criteria will be based on the students' participation. The active participation indicates that (1) the students enjoy the classroom activities, (2) they are motivated to do the writing tasks, and (3) they can apply the strategy with ease. The students' n is leveled an a scale of 0-4. A level 4 indicates that the entire class does the activities. A level 3 shows that most of the students are active in the class. A level 2 corresponds to more or less half of the students do the classroom activities. A level I indicates that only same of the students do the activities. A level 0 is said when no one does the activities. This indicator is concluded from the observation noted in checklists and field notes.(See the appendix 3)

G. The Schedule of The Classroom Action Research
The Classroom Action Research will be done within two and a half months. The activities will be scheduled as follows:
1.  Cycle 1.
              Cycle I will be done form 1 September 2012 to 30 September 2012. The activities in cycle I are described as follows :
     A. Planning : Preparing the lesson plans to introduce mind mapping and the implementation of the lesson plans in writing class. It will be done from 1 September 2012-6 September 2012.
     B. Implementing, Observing, and Reflecting from 7 September 2012 – 30 September 2012. The activates will be scheduled as follows :
          a.  Meeting I : Implementing lesson plan 1 ( 7 September 2012)
          b.  Scoring the students’ work (8 - 9 September 2012)
          c.  Reflecting: To determine whether the criteria of success are already fulfilled or not and revise the lesson plan according to the changes happening during the implementation (11 September 2012-13 September 2012)
          d.  Meeting 2 : Implementing the lesson plan 2  (14 September 2012)
          e.  Scoring the students’ work (15 September 2012 & 16 September 2012)
          f.  Reflecting : to check the success of the action revise the lesson plan according to the changes happening during the implementation ( 18 September 2012 -20 September 2012)
          g.  Meeting 3 : Implementing lesson plan 3 (21 September 2012)
          h.  Scoring the students’ work (22 September 2012 – 23 September 2012)
          i.   Reflecting the result of cycle 1 (25 September 2012– 30 September 2012)
          j. Reporting the result of the action in Cycle 1: 2 October 2012 - 7 October 2012.

II. Cycle 2   
              Cycle 2 will be done from 9 October 2012 to 11 November 2012. The activities in cycle 2 are as follows.
A. Planning: Revising and preparing the lesson plans for the action in cycle 2 based on the result of the reflection in Cycle 1 ( 9 October 2012 - 11 October 2012).
B. Implementing, Observing , and Reflecting: 12 October 2012 - 11 November 2012. The activities are as follows: 
     a.  Meeting I : Implementing lesson plan 1 (12 October 2012)
     b.  Scoring the students’ work  (13& 14 October 2012)
     c.  Reflecting: To check the success of the action and revise the lesson plan 1 according to the changes happening during the implementation of the lesson plan ( 16 October 2012 - 18 October 2012)
     d. Meeting 2 : Implementing the lesson plan 2  (19 October 2012)
     e.  Scoring the students’ work  (20 & 21 October 2012)
     f. Reflecting: To check the success of the action and revise the lesson plan 2 according to the changes happening during the implementation of the lesson plan ( 23 October 2012 - 28 October 2012)
     g.  Meeting 3 : Implementing lesson plan 3 (2 November 2012)
     h.  Scoring the students’ work: 3 & 4 November 2012
     i.  Reflecting the action in cycle 2 ( 6 November 2012 - 11 November 2012)
      j.  Reporting the whole result of the Classroom Action Research  (13 November 2012 – 18 November 2012)
          It is necessarily noted that the activities of observing are covered in those of
Appendix 1.

Axeirod, Rise.B.& Charles R.C. 1988. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

DEPDIKNAS. Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi 2004. Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris.

Simon & Schuster.1987. Handbook for writers. New York: Lynn Quitman Troyka

Weir, Curit. J. 1990. Communicative Language Testing. New York: Prentice Hall.

White, Fred-D. The writer’s Art: .4 practical Rhetoric and Handbook. New York: Wadsworth. Inc.

Willerman, M & Mac Harg, RA. 1991. The concept Map as an Advance Organizer. Journal  of Research in Science Teaching, 28(8): 2b-30.

Winterowd, W. Ross. 19$1. The Cotemporary Writer. A Practical Rhetoric. Second Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Tompkins, G. 1990. Teaching writing: Balancing process and product.. New York: Macmillan.

Tompkins and Hoskisson. 1991. Language Arts: Content and Teaching Strategies. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Appendix 2 : Observation Sheet for Observing Researcher’s Activities Meeting 1

Observation Checklist
(A Guideline for Observing Researcher’s Activities in Teaching and Learning Process)

Appendix 3 : Observation Checklist for Observing Students’ Activities

Observation Checklist
(A Guideline For Observing Students’ Activities)


Appendix 4: An example of lesson plans

Theme I Topic          :     Natural Disasters
Skill                               :   Writing
Class/ Semester              :   II Bahasa / 1
Time                               :   2X 45 minutes
1. Specific Instructional Objective
              The students are able to write a short essay about Natural Disasters based an the outline they make through a mind mapping.
2.  Teaching and Learning Activities
              A. Pre Activities (Pre Writing)
                   l.   The teacher as researcher introduces mind mapping to generate and organize ideas in writing an essay.
                   2.  The teacher mentions the types of mind mapping.
                   3.  The teacher gives an example of generating and organizing ideas for the topic' Natural Disasters' through clustering.
                   4.  The teacher elicits the students' ideas for the topic of Natural Disasters in clustering.
                   5.  The teacher asks the students to use the clustered ideas as the outline for the topic.

              B. Whilst Activities (Writing)
                   1.  The teacher assigns the students to write a draft of the essay based on the outline (clustered ideas)
                   2. The teacher reminds the students of some linguistic paints.
              C. Post activities ( Post Writing)
                   1.  The teacher organizes the students to work in pairs.
                   2.  The teacher asks them to give a proofreading to each other's work.

3.  The teacher has them revise their work for the ideas and the organization.
4. The teacher gives them time to edit their work far the language, vocabulary, and mechanics.
5. The teacher assigns them to write their work far a final draft.
6.  The teacher asks them to submit their work.

3. Teaching Materials Source:
1.  GBPP of English far SMU
2. The Window of the World. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga

4. Assessment
l. On -going assessment ( Process Assessment)
     The teacher assesses the students’ responses or behavior during the Teaching and Learning Process by using the observation sheet.
2. Product assessment
     The teacher assesses the students' essay writing and scores it on the basis of the pre-determined marking scheme.

Appendix 5

Anggaran Biaya Penelitian

Besarnya dana total
Rp.          5.000.000


Bimbingan oleh kepada sekolah 7,5%
Rp.            375.000
Bimbingan pembimbing khusus 7,5%
Rp.            375.000
Menyusun program tindakan*)
Rp.             650.000
Membuat alat peraga*) 
Rp.             500.000
Membuat lembar kerja siswa*)
Rp.             350.000
Menyusun instrument/ angket*)
Rp.             250.000
Melakukan tindakan
Rp.             750.000
Mengolah hasil penelitian
Rp.             750.000
Membuat laporan*)
Rp.             400.000
Penggandaan dan penjilidan*)
Rp.             300.000
Transport pembimbing khusus
Rp.             300.000

Rp.          5.000.000