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Skripsi. (Improving Student's speaking Competence Using CLT)

IMPROVING STUDENT’S SPEAKING COMPETENCE
USING COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING
FOR THE EIGHTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP ISLAMIYAH WIDODAREN
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2009 / 2010


THESIS



By:
M A R I Y A D I
NIRM : 06.20718.423614




ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ART EDUCATION
INSTITUTE OF TEACHING TRAINING AND EDUCATION
STKIP PGRI NGAWI

2010










CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.    The background of the study
A teacher as an educator is the most important one in conducting education which has the function and role to reach the national education goal. Teacher is the first person who interacts with students for sharing, transferring knowledge and giving experience in teaching learning activity.
In teaching learning process, teacher must be able to transfer knowledge to the students effectively and efficiently. An English teacher should not only transfer knowledge to the students but also make his students apply their knowledge and competences in the real life. Because, basically, the conduction of education is to produce the graduates who not only always can reach the good marks but also apply all of their knowledge and competences in their real life. Moreover, English is the international important language.
“Language is the means of communication, English is one language which will be used in the globalization era” (De Rider: 2007). Therefore, English is the important language to be learned. Students are the young generation of Indonesia. They will be the owner of Indonesian future. The writer believes that if Indonesians own can speak English well, they will become the great people which can take a part in the world development in the globalization era.
On the other hand, the function of studying English in Junior High School is as a means for student’s development in some aspects, such as science, technology, art, et cetera. After graduating from school, they are expected to grow to be persons individual who are intellectual, skillful, can stand alone and ready to face the competition as the citizens of building country.
Language has a central role to develop intellectual, social and emotional condition of the students and support success in studying all subjects. Language learning is expected to help students to know their cultures and the other cultures. Besides, language learning can help the students to be able to express idea and feeling, participate in society. It will help to find and use potency of analysis and image which can be found in them.
English is as a means of oral and written communication. Communication is understanding and expressing information, idea, feeling and science, technology and culture. Communication capability is discourse capability, namely capability for understanding and producing oral and written text that involve in four language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. The four skills are used for creating discourse in social life. Therefore, English subject is purposed to develop skill in order that the graduated learners are able to communicate in English at literacy level.
Wells (in Tursinawati, 2008: 2) states that “Literacy level consists of performance, function, information and epistemic. On the level of performance, the people are able to read, write, listen and speak with the symbol used. On the level of function, the people are able to use language to fulfill demand of daily life Such as reading newspaper, manual material or direction. On the level of information, the people are able to access language into language target”.
The purpose of learning English in Junior High School is to make students reach the level of function, namely communication oral and written to solve the daily problem. The students of Senior High School are expected to reach the level of information, because they have been prepared to continue their study at university or find the job. The level of literacy epistemic is believed too high to reach by students of Senior High School because English in Indonesia functions as a foreign language.
English subject in junior high school leads for the students to have competence, as follows:
1.      To develop communicative oral and written competence to reach the functional literacy level.
2.      To posses consciousness about the meaning and importance of English to increase competition power in the globalization era.
3.      To develop students understanding between language and culture.
The scope of English subject in junior high school consists of:
1.      Discourse capability, namely capability of understanding and producing oral and written text done in four language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing integrated to reach literacy functional level.
2.      Understanding and creating capability of several short functional texts, monologue and essay in the genre of procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative and report. The grade of subject for tuition appears in using vocabulary, grammar or structure, and the retort steps.
3.      Supported competence, linguistic competence (using vocabulary and grammar, articulation and grammar), socio-cultural competence (using expression and act actionable language exceptionally in the form communication), strategy competence (to solve the problem in communication process with several ways in order that the communication well) and discourse competence (using means of discourse).
From the four language skills above, learning speaking can be done well. The students can communicate orally in the simple form. On the other hand, curriculum in Junior High School 2006 gives the sign that the eight year students of Junior High School must be able to express meaning in very simple transactional and interpersonal dialogue to interact with the closest environment and express in oral simple function text to interact with others.
As the beginners, the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren are the potential learners that should learn English maximally. The writer says like that because commonly the beginner learners of English are able to memorize everything maximally. The main learning objective of learning English is to prepare the young generation of Indonesian to face the globalization era. So, in English learning, students must be able to master English on their speaking.
Actually, the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren are the students who have been studying almost two years, but they have not been able to communicate in English although in the simple form. Recently, more tragic fact for the students in English lesson who consider that English is a boring lesson. In fact, the assumptions which appoint the problem of learning English in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren rise because of many problems there.
After conducting the research in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren, the writer found some facts described as follow:
1.      The Profile of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren.
a.       SMP Islamiyah Widodaren is one of the private Junior High Schools in Widodaren district.
b.      SMP Islamiyah Widodaren is the private Junior High School which is managed by Yayasan Islamiyah Walikukun.
c.       Teachers who teach in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren are the private teachers who make subservient to Yayasan Islamiyah Walikukun by teaching in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren and employed (paid) by SMP Islamiyah Widodaren.
d.      The cost of all education operations in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren are taken from the Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS) fund.
e.       School of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren doesn’t take the cost of education operations from the students as can as possible.
f.       The students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren are the graduates from the Elementary School students who are:
1).    Not received in the favorite state schools.
2).    Difficult to pay the education cost (come from poor family).
g.      SMP Islamiyah Widodaren has more than three hundred students that are divided into six classrooms. So, there are around fifty students in each class.
h.      The building of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren is located in the center of widodaren city which consists of two floors. There are no enough fans in the classroom which make the air rather hot.
2.      The weakness of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren.
a.       There is no enough enthusiasm of teachers in teaching
b.      There is no enough enthusiasm of students in studying.
c.       There is no appropriate method in teaching English, especially in speaking.
3.      The factors which cause the weakness of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren
a.       Teachers who teach in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren are the honorary teachers that make them not have the maximal enthusiasm in teaching.
b.      Students are not asked to pay the cost of education operations make them don’t have the maximal enthusiasm in studying.
c.       Students feel lazy in studying because of the learning community which is not like their wishes.
d.      Students feel uncomfortable to study in the hot classroom.
e.       The English teacher uses the traditional method in teaching English to balance the student’s capability.
This problem comes from several factors. One of them is learning process factor. In teaching learning activity, the teacher should choose and use the method of teaching which is active, creative, effective and fun. Dunne and Wrag (in Tursinawati, 2008: 4) state, “Effective learning makes easy studying”. Besides that, Kline (in Tursinawati, 2008: 4) state, “The study will be more effective if learning process is brought into joyful situation”.
Based on the statement of Wrag and Klines above the writer is interested in bringing the students to one joyful situation in learning English to make more effective learning which can make the students easy and enjoy the studying. The writer believes that by joyful situation, the study will be more effective. Students will feel need to study and learn more to complete their capacity if they are interested in the situation which is suitable with their expectation.
To show and to tell the importance of English mastery and to make easier of reaching the learning objectives, the writer tries to apply the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). It is one method which can invite the student’s interest and capacity to master English maximally. All become possible because they are taught using Communicative Language Teaching which uses the communicative approaches. Most of them can master speaking skill automatically. Based on the statements above, the writer is interested in conducting a further investigation and decide to take a research entitled “IMPROVING STUDENT’S SPEAKING COMPETENCE USING COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING FOR THE EIGHTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP ISLAMIYAH WIDODAREN IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2009 / 2010”.
By conducting this research, the writer wants to:
1).    Prove to the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 that English is the important language in the next globalization era.
2).    Introduce the communicative approach to the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 to make easier in studying English.
3).    Prove to the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 that the communicative approach is the effective and joyful method to improve their speaking competence, so they can learn English effectively and efficiently.
The writer believes that as the Indonesian young generation who will hand Indonesia in the future, the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 have more responsibility in learning English seriously. Because, the young Indonesian generation that will handle Indonesia in the future must master English, especially in speaking.
Finally, the writer hopes the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 especially and young Indonesian generation commonly to learn English seriously because whatever will happen in Indonesia must be based on their competence.
Being a human being, the writer knows that there is no perfect human. So he invites your kind to send him your suggestion and critic about this thesis in order that he can repair his weakness as soon as possible.
B.     The limitation of the study
The several of the problems which appear at the same time will make the writer have difficulty in studying the variables. So, the writer limits the study as follows:
1.      The participants of the study are taken from the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.
2.      The teaching method which is used is Communicative Language Teaching (CLT).
3.      The study is emphasized on improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching.
C.    Statement of the Problem
Based on the background of the study which has been explained above, the writer formulates the following problem, they are:
1.      Can Communicative Language Teaching improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010?
2.      What are the problems of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010?
3.      What are the advantages and disadvantages of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010?
D.    The objective of the study
Based on the background and the problems of the study above, the writer formulates the aims of the research as follows:
1.      To know if Communicative Language Teaching improves the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.
2.      To know the problems of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.
3.      To know the advantages and disadvantages of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.






E.     The benefits of the study
The writer hopes the results of this research can give the contribution as maximally as possible for:
1.      The Students



The result of the research will be especially benefit for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 and the other students in generally.
2.      The Teacher
The result of the research will be especially benefit for the teachers of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 and the other teachers in generally.
3.      The Lecturers of STKIP PGRI Ngawi Institute
The result of the research will be benefit for the lecturers of STKIP PGRI Ngawi Institute as the consideration material of the requirements completion for the graduation degree of English education.
4.      The STKIP PGRI Ngawi Institute
The result of the research will be benefit for The STKIP PGRI Ngawi Institute as one of the completion of learning material for the students in the library.
5.      The Reader
The reader will get important information that the student’s speaking competence can be improved by using Communicative Language Teaching.
6.      The Writer
The writer will get more knowledge and experience in doing research about improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.













CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

A.    Communicative Language Teaching
1.      The definition of Communicative Language Teaching
Swan (in Richards and Rodgers, 1993: 64) states that “Communicative Language Teaching is the teaching English with adopt a communicative approach which is important for the mastery of student’s language basic skill improvement, especially in speaking”.
2.      The Characteristics of Communicative Language Teaching
Widdowson (in Richards and Rodgers, 1993: 71) states that the characteristics of CLT are as follows:
a.       Language is a system for the expression of meaning
b.      The primary function of language is for communication and interaction
c.       The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses.
d.      The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.
3.      The theory of language and learning
The function and the meaning of communication from a language are the foundation to develop the communicative learning plan (Wilkins 1977: 72). On the other hand, the cognitive aspect involves the internalization of plans for appropriate behavior. The behavior aspect involves the automation derive grammatical rules, procedure for selecting vocabulary, and social convention governing speech (Littlewood 1984:74)
This theory thus encourages an emphasis on practice as a way of developing communicative skills. The writer believes that communicative language teaching is the excellent method to develop the communicative learning because it consists of the behavior aspect which involves the automation derives grammatical rules, procedure for selecting vocabulary, and social convention governing speech.
4.      The objective of Communicative Language Teaching.
Piepho (in Richards and Rodgers 1981: 8) explains the objectives of CLT are as follows:
a.       Language as a means of expression
b.      Language as a semiotic system and an object of learning
c.       Language as a means of expressing values and judgments about oneself and others.
d.      Remedial learning based on error analysis
e.       Language learning within the school curriculum
5.      The syllabus
Wilkins (in Richards and Rodgers, 1993: 73) states “The syllabus has been central in Communicative Language Teaching which specifies the semantic-grammatical categories (e.g. frequency, motion and location) and the categories of communicative function that learners need to express.”
6.      Types of learning activity
a.       Learner role
The emphasis in Communicative Language Teaching on the process of communication, rather than mastery of language forms leads to different roles from learners from those found in more traditional second language classrooms. The Learner role as negotiator between the self, the learning process, and the objective of learning-emerges from and interact with the role of joint negotiator within the group and within the classroom procedure and activities which the group undertakes. The implication for the learner is that he should contribute as much as he gains, and thereby learn in an interdependent way (Breen and Candlin 1980: 110).
b.      Teacher role
Several roles are assumed for teachers in Communicative Language Teaching, the importance of particular roles being determined by the view of CLT adopted. The teacher has two main role, they are:
1).    Teacher is just a facilitator of the communication process among all participants in the classroom.
2).    Teacher is the independent participant within the learning teaching activity (Breen and Candlin 1980: 99)
The writer thinks that the roles of the teacher in CLT above will be able to assume a responsibility for determining and responding to learner language needs. Teacher also will be able to the researcher with much contribute in term of appropriate knowledge and abilities to the learners, actual and observe experience of the nature of learning and organizing capacities.
c.       The role of instructional materials
A wide variety of materials have been used to support communicative approaches to language teaching. We will consider two kinds of materials currently used in CLT and label these text-based and task-based (Richards, 1993: 79).
Unlike some contemporary methodologies, such as Community Language Learning, the writer knows that practitioners of Communicative Language Teaching view the materials as a way of influencing the quality of classroom interaction and language use. All of materials are based on CLT.
7.      Procedure of CLT
Because communicative principles can be applied to the teaching of any skill, at any level, and because of the wide variety of classroom activities and exercises types discussed in the literature on Communicative Language Teaching, description of typical classroom procedures used in a lesson based on CLT principles is not feasible. Sauvignon (in Richards and Rodgers, 1993: 73) discusses that technique and classroom management procedures are associated with a number of CLT classroom procedures, (e.g. group activities, language games, role plays) but neither these activities nor the ways in which they are used are exclusive to CLT classrooms. Finocchiaro and Brumpfit (in Richards and Rodgers, 1993: 73) offers a lesson outline for teaching the function “making a suggestion” for the beginner learners of a secondary school program that suggest that CLT procedures are evolutionary rather than revolutionary.
According to Finocchiaro and Brumfit (in Richards and Rodgers, 1993: 73), the procedure of CLT is as follows:
a.       Presentation
Presentation of a brief dialogue or several mini-dialogs, preceded by a motivation ( relating the dialog situation (s) to the learner’s probable community experiences) and a discussion of the function and situation-people, role, setting, topic and the informality or formality of the language which the function and situation demand. (At beginning levels, where all the learners understand the same native language, the motivation can well be given in their native tongue).
b.      Oral practice
Oral practice of each utterance of the dialog segment to be presented that day (entire class repetition, half-class, groups, individuals) generally preceded by your model. If mini-dialogs are used, engage in similar practice.
c.       Questions and answers are based on the situation
Questions and answers are based on the dialog topic (s) and situation itself (inverted wh, or or questions).
d.      Question and answer related the personal experiences but centered on the dialog theme.
e.       Study one of the basic communicative expressions.
It is done in the dialogue or one of the structures which exemplify the function. You will wish to give several additional examples of the communicative use of the expression or structure with familiar vocabulary in unambiguous utterance or mini-dialog (using pictures, simple real objects or dramatization) to clarify the meaning of the expression or the structure.
f.       Learners express their discovery
Learner discovery of generalizations or rules must underlie the functional expression or the structure. This should include at least four points in oral and written forms (the element of whish it is composed, e.g. How about + verb + ing?”); its position in the utterance and in the case of the structure, its grammatical function and meaning.
g.      Oral recognition, interpretative activities (two to five depending on the learning level, the language knowledge of the students, and related factors).
h.      Oral production activities-proceeded from guided to freer communication activity.
i.        Sampling of the written homework assignment, if given.
j.        Evaluation of learning (oral only), e.g. “How would you ask your friend to ____________?” And how would you ask me to _________?”
Such procedures clearly have much in common with those observed in classes taught  according to the Structural-Situational and Audio-lingual principles. Traditional procedures are not rejected but are re interpreted and extended. A similar conservatism is found in many “orthodox” CLT texts, such as Alexander’s Mainline Beginners (1978). Although each unit has an ostensibly functional focus, new teaching points are introduced with dialogues, following by controlled practice of the main grammatical patterns. The teaching points are the contextualized through situational practice, this serves as an introduction to freer practice activity, such as a role a play of improvisation. Similar techniques are used in another popular textbook, Starting Strategies (Abbs and Freebairn in Richards and Rodgers, 1993: 82).
Teaching points are introduced in dialogue form, grammatical items are isolated for controlled practice, and then freer activities are provided. Pair and group work is suggested to encourage the students to use and practice functions and forms. The methodological procedures underlying these texts reflect as sequence of activities represented in Littlewood (1981, p. 86) as follow:

Structural activities
Pre-communicative activities
Quasi- communicative activities

Functional communication activities
Communicative activities
Social interaction activities
B.     Competence
1.      Definition of Competence
Competence is combination of knowledge, skill, value and attitude reflected thinking and behaving habit.  Mc. Ashan (in Tursinawati 2008: 8) states that, “Competence is knowledge, skills and abilities or capabilities that a person achieves which becomes part of his or her being to extent him or she can satisfactorily perform particular cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviors”.
Further, Finch and Crunkilton (in Tursinawati 2008: 8) state that “Competence is mastering of a task, skills, attitude and appreciation needed to support success”.
Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that competencies having the ability, skill and knowledge to do something. (Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 1995: 80).
2.      English Competence in Junior High School
Competence on English Curriculum in Junior High School is Discourse Competence, namely capability for arranging and producing oral or written text based on contexts culture and situation. When someone is speaking or having speech producing text, which their meaning understood by the other people to match with contexts culture and the speech situation.
Discourse is communication process influenced by topic, interpersonal connection between user language and communication line (oral or written) is one context culture. This factor decides choice, such as what someone choice is something formal / informal, related / unrelated. Holiday (in Tursinawati 2008: 9) states that “The student capability communication to match with contexts”.
Discourse competence will be found if the students get supporting competence, they are:
a.       Action competence. Action competence is the action expression to oral language or retort to written language. Action competence consists of listening, speaking, reading and writing.
b.      Linguistic competence. It is the knowledge about sound, word, sentence, etc.
c.       Socio cultural competence. It is the choice of language which is influenced by socio cultural knowledge of the speaker, interpersonal connection among the language user in one culture context whether that is the formal/no formal, related/unrelated, etc.
d.      Strategic competence. It is the competence to solve the problems when studying language or communication process, such as repeat, rephrase (said with the other ways), explaining and rephrasing.
e.       Discourse competencies the competence for producing oral and written text, such as selection, rotation and meaning word, structure, and sentence/pronunciation (utilization f discourse, cohesion, diesis, and coherencies).
So the English curriculum which is based on the competence consists of action competence, socio cultural competence, strategic competence and discourse former competence.
C.    Speaking Competence   
  1. Definition of Speaking Competence
Speaking is something to express idea using sound and pronunciation (Longman, in Tursinawati 2008: 10). Based on the definition, in speaking activity usually be found some related factors. For knowing the feeling, opinion or fact to the other people, someone needs to arrange the sentence from words. This case connects to accusation.
Speaking is one of four competences that must be mastered by students. This is active activity in studying language. Some components to master speaking skill involve vocabulary, pronunciation and structure or grammar.
The aim of speaking skill learning is to develop student competence to express actionable activity such as opening dialogue, maintaining, closing dialogue, requesting, greeting, expressing enthusiasm, apologize, invitation in context. Competence is having the ability, skill, and knowledge to do something (Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 1995:80). Therefore, speaking competence is ability, skill and knowledge of speaking.
  1. Speaking Competence of eighth year students
Speaking competence of eighth year students are as follows:
a.       To express meaning in simple transactional and interpersonal dialogue to interact with the environment.
1).    To express meaning in transactional (to get thing done) and interpersonal (socialize) dialogue using simple or oral language, accurately, fluently and accepted.
2).    To do the interaction with the environment that involves actionable expression, greeting, introducing oneself to the other and command or prohibition.
3).    To express meaning in transactional (to get thing done) and interpersonal (socialize) dialogue using simple oral language, accurately, fluently, and accepted to interact with the environment involves expression action, request, and giving information, said thanks, apologize.
b.      To express meaning in oral simple short functional text to interact with others.
1).    To express meaning of speaking in oral simple short functional text accurately, fluently, and accepted in interacting with the other.
2).    To express meaning idea in oral simple short functional text accurately, fluently, and accepted in interacting with the other.
c.       To express meaning in simple transactional and interpersonal dialogue to interact with the environment.
1).    To express meaning of speaking in oral simple short function text accurately, fluently and accepted to the environment.
2).    To express meaning of idea in oral simple short function text accurately, fluently and accepted to the environment.
d.  To express meaning in simple transactional and interpersonal dialogue in interacting with the environment.
1).    To express meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal (socialize) dialogue using simple oral language accurately, fluently and accepted to interact with the environment involves speaking, request and giving things, request and giving service and request and giving fact.
2).    To express meaning in transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal (socialize) dialogue using simple oral language accurately, fluently and accepted to interact with the environment involves speaking, request and giving opinion, expression like and dislike, clarification to respond with interpersonal.

  1. Speaking Competence Assessment
Brown (in Tursinawati, 2008: 12) states that class assessment in learning English is assessment that executes teacher to the students for helping their study language, and increase learning by diagnostic assessment or product of study.
In learning English, we not only need knowledge assessment of student about syntax, vocabulary and their capability using English language as a means of communication, but also produce and interpretate meaning. We need assess of students ability in analyzing text and context, too.
Assessment is executed without waiting until the middle or end of semester, but since learning process the teacher begins monitoring development of the students and using format control. In this process teacher can notice knowledge of students to solve the task.  By continuously observation, teacher will know whether student capability is fast or slow and then he will get the treatment. The continuously observation result can be given to the students so they will understand their weakness and strength and then it can be used to repair their work.
In speaking competence assessment, there are some cases connected, they are:
a.       Element of speaking skill
To measure speaking skill, the most valid way is to command student speaking not writing. Therefore, to measure speaking skill students must do oral activity. By speaking, the teacher can know student’s capability level to apply the whole elements of speaking skill (such as expressing meaning capability that designed by using vocabulary, structure or grammar, right and fluently pronunciation).
b.      Embrace for speaking activity
For doing speaking activity naturally, the speaker needs partner to speak. This partner of speaking can become standard correction whether the conversation can be understood or not. This means he/she successful in communicating the meaning he/she wants to express.
The partner of speaking can be teachers or friends. If the partner of speaking is teacher, students must wait long enough to get an opportunity. However, if they collaborate speaking with friends, teacher can economize the time by asking students to cooperate with group or pair. Each group or pair practice their capability in front of the teacher and the other group or pair wait outside the classroom.
The teacher can directly assess or copy student’s activity using the video or audio recorder. Using the video or audio recorder teacher gives assessment more accurately and if the teacher uses the format control it must includes the behavior or criterion of the speaking assessment.
c.       Speaking task
1).    Asking students to spell and pronounce the words in a good order.
One of ways can be used in order to the student can practice the speaking well is the teacher asks them to mastery spelling skill. For example, teacher asks them to answer the question. “Can you spell your name, please?” (Asked the teacher or friend) or command the students in pair or group for doing simple dialogue about how you spell the letter into word.
Therefore, the teacher can measure two capabilities at the same time, namely ability the questionnaire says word given and ability the answerer spells words mentioned the questionnaire.
Student 1  : How do you spell “beautiful”?
Student 2  : // bi / i / ei / yu / ti / ai / ef / yu / el //
Student 1  : What about “lazy”?
Student 2  : // el / ei / zi / ai //               
For assessment of student’s spelling capability, the teacher using format control that is used to read aloud with adds adept in spell.
2).    The simple question and answer.
To measure students capability in talking and having a simple dialogue in English, teacher uses some stimulation for example picture, map, etc. the activity is executed with way  “role play” or based on “model” discussion that prepared  by the teacher.
The speaking skill of junior high school is still low. The speaking test that invite the students to have them doing freely discussion without model or guidance is very difficult. Therefore, discussion model or role play guidance is just got in Indonesian language of junior high school and not for English language because English possibility the students feel more difficult to understand the discussion model.
D.    The relationship between using Communicative Language Teaching and Speaking Competence
Communicative Language Teaching is the teaching English by adopting a communicative approach which important for the mastery of student’s language basic skill improvement, especially in speaking (Swan in Richards and Rodgers, 1993: 64).
The emphasis in Communicative Language Teaching on the process of communication, rather than mastery of language forms leads to different roles from learners from those found in more traditional second language classrooms. The Learner role as negotiator between the self, the learning process, and the objective of learning-emerges from and interact with the role of joint negotiator within the group and within the classroom procedure and activities which the group undertakes. The implication for the learner is that he should contribute as much as he gains, and thereby learn in an interdependent way. So, the writer believes that Communicative Language Teaching application can build student’s speaking competence maximally.
Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that Communicative Language Teaching will improve student’s speaking competence towards better learning.























CHAPTER III
EXECUTION PROCEDURE

A.    Classroom Action Research Design
Method is the way to solve the problem. In this research, the writer uses qualitative research which focuses on the Classroom Action Research (CAR).
Marshal (in Sarwono, 1995:193) states that “Qualitative research is the process to reach the better understanding concern the complexities in human interaction”.
Classroom Action Research (CAR) is an Action Research which is done in the classroom. Action research is a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants (teachers, students or principals, for example) in social (including educational) situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of (1) their own social or educational practices, (2) their understanding of these practices, and (3) the situations (and institutions) in which the practices are carried out (Carr and Mc Niff, 1992, p.2).
Thus, action research is the researches are done by a teacher in his own class through self correction whose aim is to upgrade his performance so that the results of the students are increasing (Wardhani and Wihardit, 2007: 14)
Research is designed to solve the problem through a systematic procedure by collecting data, analyzing data, and concluding based on the data. Tuckman (in Sarwono 1978:1) states that “research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions, such answers may be abstract and general as in often the case in basic research or they may be highly concrete and specific in applied research”.
Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that research methodology is the whole ways or strategy to find needed data. Here the writer finds a suitable way or strategy to find needed data on improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010 using Classroom Action Research of model Kemmis (Mc Niff, 1992 p.2). The research designed as follow:
Starting Idea
Learning Action:
Students are taught using the traditional method
 



Result Founded
Student’s condition that are taught using the traditional method:
1.      Students learn that the goal of foreign language study is to learn its literature.
2.      Students learn that reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic is paid to speaking or listening.
3.      Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading text only.
4.      The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice.
5.      Accuracy is emphasized.
6.      Grammar is taught deductively.
7.      The student’s native language is the medium of instruction.
  

Planning
Make learning tools based on the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with communicative approach.
1.      Prepare the syllabus and lesson plan
2.      Prepare the teaching activity and other tools based on the communicative approach
 


Implementation of the planning
1.Practicing all teaching learning activity using communicative approach
2.Identifying the problem
3.Analyzing and formulate the problem
4.Planning the Classroom Action Research
5.Implementing the Classroom Action Research

 



Evaluation
Student’s condition that are taught using Communicative Language Teaching method:
1.      Students can use language to get thing.
2.      Students can use language to control the behavior of other.
3.      Students can use language to create interaction with other.
4.      Students can use language to express personal feelings and meanings.
5.      Students can use language to learn and discover.
6.      Students can use language to create the world of imagination.
7.      Students can use language to communicate.
 



Determining and discussing the results
1.      Communicative Language Teaching can improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.
2.      There is no significant problem of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.
3.      There are many advantages of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.




1.      How Improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.
To start the lesson the teacher says greeting to the students. After that, the teacher checks the attendance list of students and gives the motivation to the students in order that they have more spirit to study English. The following activities are that the teacher gives illustration and introduces about Communicative Language Teaching, gives materials using communicative approach, gives the example how to learn the material using the communicative approach, gives materials about new vocabulary and writes them on the whiteboard, gives the meaning and function of that vocabulary, writes that vocabulary and asks students to repeat, asks the students to remember and always practice that vocabulary because they will always be used in learning the whole English subject material.
After all of the new vocabularies are remembered well the students are divided in groups to listen and learn the teacher’s explanation. In Communicative Language Teaching which uses communicative approach teacher always speaks in English when he/she is teaching in the class. Finally, teacher asks the students to listen and learn the teacher’s explanation individually.
2.      The application of improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.
The process of improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching is divided into three steps, namely:
a.       Pre-teaching
In this activity, the teacher says greeting to the students, checks the attendance list of the students, and gives the motivation to the students in order that they have more spirit to study English. The following table explains the activity between teacher and students in Pre-teaching:

Teacher

Students
Ø Good morning, Students.
Ø How are you today?
Ø I am fine, too. Thank you.
Ø OK. Who is absent today?
Ø Before I start to teach you today, I would like to give you motivation in order that you always get more spirit on your learning English. Listen carefully!
Ø  Good morning, Sir.
Ø  I am fine, thank you. And you?
Ø  Nobody, Sir.
Ø  OK. Sir.



b.      Main-teaching
In this research, the writer uses CTL method (Budhianto, 2006:24) as follows:
1)      BKOF (Building Knowledge of Field)
In this activity, the teacher gives illustration and introduces Communicative Language Teaching, gives materials using communicative approach, and gives the example how to learn the material using the communicative approach.
2)      MOT (Modeling of the Text)
In this activity, the teacher gives materials about new vocabulary and writes them on the whiteboard, gives the meaning and function of that vocabulary, writes that vocabulary and asks students to repeat, asks the students to remember and always practice that vocabulary because they will always be used in learning whole English subject material, asks and answers students in English and vice versa.
3)      JCOT (Joining Construction of the Text)
In this activity, the teacher asks the students to make a group, gives all instructions, and teaches the materials of English subject using English language. All groups are asked to pay attention to the teacher’s explanation. All members in each group discuss the meaning and aims of the explanations. All groups try to understand the explanation which is given in English and the teacher evaluates each group’s understanding about the materials. Teacher gives questions about the materials which have been taught and the delegation of each group answers those questions.
4)      ICOT (Independent Construction of the Text)
In this activity, the teacher tests the student’s speaking skill. This testing is given to each student by giving question one by one about the materials which have been explained and the students give the answer orally. All of activities are always conducted in English.
Example:
Teacher
Student
-      Oky, what is the title of the text?
-      Reza, why was the writer sad?
-      Tri, what is the main idea of second paragraph?
-   The title of the text is going to the   zoo, Sir.
-   The writer was sad because his wallet was lost, Sir.
-   The main idea of second paragraph is losing the wallet, Sir.

c.       Closing-teaching
At this step, the teacher asks the difficulties of learning English using Communicative Language Teaching which has been conducted and gives the solutions of those difficulties. Then, teacher explains the main purpose of learning English using Communicative Language Teaching and the importance of speaking English.
B.     Place and time of the research
The research by the title “Improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 was done in one cycle, with the four time meeting allocated for each class. The classroom action research was held in the eight A and B classes of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren, Widodaren subdistrict, Ngawi Regency on March 2nd until 5th 2010. The Schedule of teaching English to improve student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching is as follows:
No
Day and Date
Class
Time Allocation
Learning Activity
1.
Tuesday, March 2nd 2010
Eight A
07.00-08.20
a. Pre-teaching:
b. Main-teaching
·   BKOF
·   MOT
2
Thursday,  March 4th 2010
Eight A
07.00-08.20
·   JCT
·   ICT
c. Closing-teaching
3.
Thursday, March 4th 2010
Eight B
08.10-09.20
a. Pre-teaching:
b. Main-teaching
·   BKOF
·   MOT
4.
Friday ,  March 5th 2010
Eight B
07.00-08.10
·   JCT
·   ICT
c. Closing-teaching
C.    The subject of research
In that research, the subject who was researched to know the improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 is the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.
Eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 consist of two classes. The Eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 are described as follows:
Table I
 The list of Students SMP Islamiyah Widodaren
In Academic year 2009 / 2010
No.
Name of Student
Class
Gender (Male/Female)
1
Ajik Rizal Romadhoni
Eight A
Male
2
Andika Bayu S
Eight A
Male
3
Anfal Setyawan
Eight A
Male
4
Angga Dimas S
Eight A
Male
5
Anggi Choirul I
Eight A
Male
6
Annisa Nurziati
Eight A
Female
7
Arin Rahmawati
Eight A
Female
8
Arip Setiawan
Eight A
Male
9
Arya bayu p.
Eight A
Male
10
Bramanda Azis Y
Eight A
Male
11
Burhanudin
Eight A
Male
12
Dedi Yulianto
Eight A
Male
13
Desi Paryanti
Eight A
Female
14
Dian Tarikha A
Eight A
Female
15
Dika Utami
Eight A
Female
16
Diki Ervan A
Eight A
Male
17
Doni Iskandar
Eight A
Male
18
Dwi Lestari
Eight A
Female
19
Eet Sundari
Eight A
Female
20
Efi Kurnia Fitriana
Eight A
Female
21
Emi Susanti
Eight A
Female
22
Fajar Setiawan
Eight A
Male
23
Fitriyani Susanti
Eight A
Female
24
Giarti
Eight A
Female
25
Hafidh Bahruddin F
Eight A
Male
26
Hannik Fauziah
Eight A
Female
27
Harnanto Wibowo P
Eight A
Male
28
Haryono
Eight A
Male
29
Ima Sulistiyaningrum
Eight A
Female
30
Indah Puspitasari
Eight A
Female
31
Istikhomah
Eight A
Female
32
Joko Yulianto
Eight A
Male
33
Jonni Tri Hermawan
Eight A
Male
34
Juli Lestari
Eight A
Female
35
Kiki Adi Sulistyoningsih
Eight A
Female
36
Linda Dwi Widiawati
Eight A
Female
37
Luqman Khakim
Eight A
Male
38
Lusi Utami
Eight A
Female
39
Lusi Widiawati
Eight A
Female
40
Mawadah Puji Rahayu
Eight A
Female
41
Muhamad Ilham M
Eight A
Male
42
Muhamad Wahyudi
Eight A
Male
43
Muhamad Rajab Jefri
Eight A
Male
44
Nofita Sari
Eight A
Female
45
Nopitasari Haipi Q
Eight A
Female
46
Rizki Fauziah Q
Eight A
Female
47
Noven Aditias
Eight B
Male
48
Vovi Wulandari
Eight B
Female
49
Novia Ardiana
Eight B
Female
50
Novita Eka Maryatun
Eight B
Female
51
Nur Mei Wati
Eight B
Female
52
Okmi Susanti
Eight B
Female
53
Petti Maulani
Eight B
Female
54
Pipit Solikhah
Eight B
Female
55
Puji Suryantiningsih
Eight B
Female
56
Qoiri Lestari
Eight B
Female
57
Rahmat Irfana
Eight B
Male
58
Risna Probo Hastuti
Eight B
Female
59
Rizki Avin Setiawan
Eight B
Male
60
Rofikoh Sari
Eight B
Female
61
Safrotin Baroroh
Eight B
Female
62
Selvi Murviana
Eight B
Female
63
Siswanto Eko Saputro
Eight B
Male
64
Siti Koiriyah
Eight B
Female
65
Siti Maisaroh
Eight B
Female
66
Siti Rohana
Eight B
Female
67
Sri Wahyuni
Eight B
Female
68
Sri Wahyuni B
Eight B
Female
69
Sujiadi
Eight B
Male
70
Sukron Jazilah
Eight B
Male
71
Sukiran
Eight B
Male
72
Sumarli
Eight B
Male
73
Surfan Mardiansah
Eight B
Male
74
Surtikanti Wahono
Eight B
Female
75
Suryani
Eight B
Female
76
Suryanto
Eight B
Male
77
Tony Cahyono
Eight B
Male
78
Tri Handayani
Eight B
Female
79
Tri Suyani
Eight B
Female
80
Tri Wahyu Susanti
Eight B
Female
81
Tri Waluyo
Eight B
Male
82
Triana Puji Astutik
Eight B
Female
83
Umi Munawaroh
Eight B
Female
84
Vian Evi Nurvianti
Eight B
Female
85
Wahyu Ernawati
Eight B
Female
86
Wahyu Purwanto
Eight B
Male
87
Wahyu Wulandari
Eight B
Female
88
Wasis Saputro
Eight B
Male
89
Salman Thariq Alfarizqi G
Eight B
Male
90
Wita Sari
Eight B
Female
91
Yana Wulansari
Eight B
Female
92
Yoga Bagus Pratama
Eight B
Male
93
Yoga Sunja Anggara
Eight B
Male
94
Yulia Nur Chasanah
Eight B
Female
95
Yuni Wilasari
Eight B
Female

Note:  The Number of Student
Class
Male
Female
Total
Class eight A
22
24
46
Class eight B
17
32
49
Total
39
56
95

D.    Procedure of Classroom Action Research
To know the results of the research entitled Improving Student’s Speaking competence Using Communicative Language Teaching for the Eighth Year Students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in Academic year 2009/2010 and to get the answer of the problem of the study, the writer has determined all of those with the English teacher in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren.
The Cycle:
1.      Planning the Action
At this step the activities are arranged as follows:
a.       Learning tools based on the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with communicative approach.
b.      Preparing the syllabus and lesson plan.
c.       Preparing the teaching activity and other tools based on the communicative approach.
d.      Arranging the observation activity guidance of the teacher in the classroom, student’s speaking competence assessments guidance, and reflection guidance.
2.      Implementing the plan
a.       Opening activity
1)      The teacher prepares the classroom condition.
2)      The teacher tells about the important of learning English.
3)      The teacher tells about the speaking competence the students must master.
4)      The teacher tells the method which will be used.
b.      Main activity
1)      The teacher teaches the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren based on the syllabus and lesson plan which is based on the communicative approach.
2)      The teacher holds the teaching learning activity based on the communicative language learning method.
3)      The teacher uses the tools based on the communicative approach
4)      The teacher asks students about their opinion of teaching English using communicative language learning method.
c.       Closing Activity
The teacher and researcher make an evaluation about the teaching learning activity. The purpose of evaluation is to know the improvement and results of the students to answer the problem of the study.
3.      Observation
Observation is the quotation with systematic treatment of the objects and the other cases needed in supporting the research (Sarwono, 1992: 224). Observation is mainly used to collect data. The data are information about improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.
At this step teacher and researcher observe and write the students’ activity when they teach and give the speaking test.
4.      Reflection
At this step researcher gives the assessment of action success, evaluating the activity steps, determining the result of activity and arranging the recommendation of the reparation. But, according to the cycle research, the writer decides not to do the reparation, because he thinks that the result has been like the expectation.































CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF THE RESEARCH

In this chapter, the researcher presents the result and discusses the research which has been conducted at the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010. Generally, the whole problems have been discussed in the first chapter.
A.    The General Sketch of Research
Language is a means of communication. Language is a form of social interaction. Therefore, language is used in the social interaction. Language involves unpredictability and high creativity in the form and content. Language takes place in the discourse and sociocultural contexts which give the limitation about the use of language that is good and suitable. Language always has the purpose, e.g. to build the social rellationship, suggest or promise.
The emphasis in Communicative Language Teaching is on the process of communication, rather than mastery of language forms leads to different roles from learners from those found in more traditional second language classrooms. The Learner role is as negotiator between the self, the learning process, and the objectives of learning-emerges from and interact with the role of joint negotiator within the group and within the classroom procedure and activities which the group undertakes. The implication for the learner is that he should contribute as much as he gains, and thereby learn in an interdependent way. Therefore, the writer believes that Communicative Language Teaching application can improve the eighth year student’s speaking competence maximally in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.
At the implementation, the research in the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 is emphasized on improving student’s speaking competence using Communicative Language Teaching by applying the communicative approaches. In that research, the researcher invests some language realities to the students. Those language realities are:
1.      Language is speech, not writing.
2.      A Language is what its native speakers say, not what someone thinks they ought to say.
3.      Languages are different.
4.      A language is a set of habit, and
5.      Teaching the language, not about the language.
On that research, the researcher also plants some values to the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 as follow:
1.      A living language is characterized by rule-giverned creativity.
2.      The rules of grammar are psychologically real.
3.      Man is specially equipped to learn languages.
4.      A living language is a language in which we can think.
The more specific result which is reached in the research entitled “Improving Student’s Speaking Competence using Communicative Language Teaching for the eighth year Students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010” at the cycle is as follow:
B.     The Result of Cycle Research
1.      At the starting idea with the learning action which try to teach the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 using traditional method, the researcher finds the results about student’s condition which is described as follow:
The eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 see that the goal of foreign language study is just to learn its literature. They can’t reach the other competences, like speaking competence. That condition rises because the goal of foreign language study in traditional method is to learn language in order that read its literature or in order to benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that result from foreign language study. Grammar Translation Method (traditional method) is a way of studying a language that are approached the language first through detailed analysis of its grammatical rules, followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. It, hence, views language learning as consisting of little more than memorizing rules and facts in order that understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language.
Students learn that reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic is paid to speaking or listening. This condition rises because students are taught which is only focus on reading and writing, so they just mastery reading and writing. They can’t reach speaking or listening mastery level.
Students are lack of vocabulary. This condition rises because the vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading text used, and words are taught through bilingual words lists, dictionary study, and memorization. In a typical grammatical translation text, the grammar rules are presented and illustrated, lists of vocabulary items are presented with their translation equivalents, and translation exercises are prescribed. This fact is so bad for the students. They won’t be able to use language to communicate each other because of lack of communicative Vocabulary they master.
The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences into and out of the target language, and it is the focus on the sentence that is the distinctive feature of method. Earlier approaches to foreign language study used grammar as an aid to the study of the texts in a foreign language. But, this is thought to be too difficult for students in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren, and the focus on the sentence was an attempt to make language learning easier. From the result above, the writer thinks that the expressions sentences are far from eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren reaching.
Students only can translate the text which is taught. That condition rises because accuracy is emphasized and students are expected to attain in high standards in translation, because of the high priority attached to meticulous standards of accuracy which as well as having an intrinsic moral value, is a pre-requisite for passing the increasing number of formal written examinations that growing during the century.
Students feel difficult to identify the grammar inductively. It happen because in traditional method grammar is taught deductively. That is by presentation and study of grammar rules, which are then practiced through translation exercise.
Students can not practice the language which are they learning at their daily activities. This condition rises because teacher uses student’s native language as the medium of instruction. Students can’t know the instruction in English language, so they will feel difficult to speak in English. This condition enable the students feel lazy to learn more and feel bored.
Teaching English using traditional method makes the eighth year students of in SMP Islamiyah Widodaren far from reaching the speaking competence, whereas speaking is the main goal of learning language. Beside the results above, the researcher also took and got the data about eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren’s speaking competence which can be reached is as follow:
Table II
Student’s speaking competence in teaching English using Traditional Method
Competence
Qualification
Number of Students
Percentage
Speaking
Good
Enough
Less
7
16
72
7,37 %
16,84 %
75,79 %
Total
95
100 %

The table above shows that there is a few of the students get good qualification on speaking competence (7, 37 %), many of them said get enough qualification on speaking competence (16, 84 %) and there are so many students who get less qualification on speaking competence (75, 79 %). The table above shows that the traditional method doesn’t cause the students gets good qualification on their speaking competence.
2.      Based on the results of applying the traditional method above, researcher plan the strategy which suitable with the communicative approach. At the planning of the research, the researcher makes learning tools as follow:
a.       Preparing the syllabus and lesson plan based on communicative approach.
b.      Preparing the vocabularies about the action verbs which are usually used in the instructions, expressions, etc. 
c.       Preparing the teaching activity and the other tools based on the communicative approach.
3.      At the Implementation of the planning, students are taught using communicative approach which is applied with communicative activities as follow:
a.       Using drawing to asses listening comprehension
At this activity, students are given the instructions orally. They are asked to draw like the instruction which is given by the teacher. For example, they are asked to draw a big house which has the large yard in front of it. Or, they are asked to draw the beautiful scenery of the green mountain in the morning. Here is the example of the instructions which is the teacher used to ask the students to draw to asses their listening comprehension.
Teacher   :  Students, now I would like to test your listening comprehension. I would like to ask you to draw a big house which has the large yard in front of it. I will use the instructions orally in English. If you understand the instructions which I will give to you, you will be able to produce the right picture. Now, prepare your paper, pencil and other tools to draw.

On that activity, teacher gives the instructions orally to the students to draw rightly. And then, they are given some times to finish their drawing. If the students understand the instructions which are given orally above, they will produce the right picture. After that, teacher asks the students to submit their pictures.
b.      Getting to know the partner.
Getting to know the partner is the activity that is done by the students in pairs / group, the groups consist of three or four member using English. Each student asks to their friends about their family, hobby, etc using the simple English. Then, every student is asked to report what are the similarity and difference between him and their friends in front of the class.
This activity shows to the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah that English is meaningful, enjoyable, interesting and can invite their enthusiasm. They can know that English is the important language to be learned more. The writer states that this activity can improve their speaking competence into communication level.
c.       Two vocabulary review.
In group activity, there is a word is given to each group, example: “BRIGHT”. The next participant must also mention the words which are ended by letter T, like KNIGHT, and so on.
This activity makes the students are interested in memorizing more vocabulary to explore themselves into better student.
d.      How good is students memory
At this activity, teacher gives the picture. Students are given some minutes to look at that picture. And then, students must answer the questions or explain the content of that picture. This activity makes students explore themselves in vocabulary about the picture which have been given.
e.       Creating sentences from a word box
Students are given the words. And then, students must create the sentence as many as possible from those words.
f.       Interview role play
At this activity, each student is asked to stands up from his chair. And then, he mentions the profession which he will choose. The other students ask with the various kinds of question. Then, student explains why he chooses that profession, etc. This activity makes students grow into good communication level.
g.      What can you remember
Students remember whatever can be remembered from the picture which has been given. And then, express in English.
h.      Text completion
Students are given a text, they must complete that text using their imagination. This activity invites their imagination to explore their imagination and they have an interest to memorize vocabulary automatically.
4.      Evaluation
After the Implementation of teaching English using communicative approach which is applied with communicative activities above, researcher found some facts about the condition most of the eighth year Students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010. Those facts are so as significant as the writer predict.
Teaching English using communicative approach which is applied with communicative activities makes students can use language to get thing. It can be proved by saying many kinds of expressions to get thing done. Students can use language to control the behavior of other. Students can use language to create interaction with other by doing communication activity in various situations. Students can use language to express personal feelings and meanings. Students can use language to learn and discover. By mastery English, students can read and know the right meaning of foreign knowledge books, article or world news which are written in English. Students can use language to create the world of imagination. Students can use language to communicate each other. Students can speak and response the instructions which are given by the teacher. Beside the results above, the researcher also took and got the data about student’s speaking competence which can be reached as follow;






Table III
Student’s speaking competence in teaching English using communicative approach which is applied with communicative activities
Competence
Qualification
Number of students
Percentage
Speaking
Good
Enough
Less
58
32
5
61, 05 %
33, 68 %
5, 26 %
Total
95
100 %

The table above shows that there are so many students get good qualification on speaking competence (61, 05 %), many of them said get enough qualification on speaking competence (33, 68 %) and there are so less students who get less qualification on speaking competence (5, 26 %). The table above shows that Communicative Language Teaching which is applied with communicative activities causes the students reach the significant improvement on their speaking competence compared teaching English using the traditional method.
5.                                    Determining and Discussing the Results
Based on the results of Implementation in teaching English using communicative approach which is applied with communicative activities above, researcher determines and discusses result as follow:
a.       Communicative Language Teaching can improve student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.
It is shown by these indicators, Students can use language to get thing and use language to control the behavior of other, use language to create interaction with other, use language to express personal feelings and meanings, use language to learn and discover, use language to create the world of imagination, and use language to communicate. That improvement also can be shown by the following table:
Table IV
The comparison of teaching English between traditional method and communicative language teaching
Competence
Qualification
Number of students
Improvement

Percentage

Traditional method
CLT
Speaking
Good
Enough
Less
7
16
72
58
32
5
+51
+16
+67
87, 93%
50%
1340%
Total
95
95


The table above shows that Communicative Language Teaching can improve student’s speaking competence. If it is compared, the result of student’s speaking competence which is taught using traditional method is just few of them get good qualification on speaking competence (7, 37 %), many of them are said get enough qualification on speaking competence (16, 84 %) and there are so many students who get less qualification on speaking competence (75, 79 %). On the other hand, the student’s speaking competence which is taught using Communicative Language Teaching improves significantly, the table above shows that there are so many students get good qualification on speaking competence (61, 05 %), many of them are said get enough qualification on speaking competence (33, 68 %) and there are so less students who get less qualification on speaking competence (5, 26 %). The table above shows that Communicative Language Teaching which is applied with communicative activities causes the students get the significant improvement on their speaking competence compared teaching English using the traditional method.
From the table above, the writer presents the reality of the significant improvement in student’s speaking competence of the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010. We know that the traditional method doesn’t cause the students get good qualification on their speaking competence. By using the traditional method, there are just 7 (7, 37%) students get good qualification, 16 (16, 84%) students get enough qualification and there are 72 (75, 79%) students get less qualification. After the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 are taught using communicative language teaching which is applied with communicative activities, there are 58 (61, 05%) students get good qualification in the speaking competence, 32 (33, 68%) students get enough qualification and there are just 5 (5, 26%) students who get less qualification. If we compare, there are 51 (+87, 93%) students which improve on their speaking competence with good qualification, there are 16 (+50%) students which improve on their speaking competence with enough qualification and there are +67 (1.340%) students (decrease) which get less qualification on their speaking competence.
b.      There is no significant problem of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.
The researcher determines like that because there are just few problems which are found in applying Communicative Language Teaching which is applied with communicative activities. Basically, the problems which rise are the students are lack of vocabulary. But, this problem can be solved by giving common vocabularies which is usually and always be used and suitable with communicative approach. Beside that, the students don’t realize about the main basic language realities. But, It can be solved by giving them the main basic language realities. Those language realities are language is speech, not writing¸ a Language is what its native speakers say, not what someone thinks they ought to say, languages are different, a language is a set of habit and teacher teaches the language, not about the language. The next problem which is the writer found is the students don’t realize about the main purpose of learning language. But, it can be solved by telling them the main purpose of learning language. Those purposes language learning are Language is a system for the expression of meaning, the primary function of language is for communication and interaction, the structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses, the primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.
c.       There are many advantages of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.
While doing the research, researcher finds the advantages of applying Communicative Language Teaching.  Those advantages are students feel happy on learning English. They have great self confidence to say whatever they want to say in English. They like to consider English as their mother tongue. Students can compare their own language and the other language which are they learning about. They like to express something in english better than in their own language. Applying Communicative Language Teaching can improve student’s communicative competence, and so on.
Discussing about disadvantages, researcher don’t find the significant disadvantages. If there is any problem, it can be solved like in the point b above.
C.    DISCUSSION
From the result of the research, researcher shows that:
1.      Communicative Language Teaching can improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010.
Improving student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009 / 2010 is shown by some indicators, students can use language to get thing and use language to control the behavior of other, use language to create interaction with other, use language to express personal feelings and meanings, use language to learn and discover, use language to create the world of imagination, and use language to communicate each other. That improvement is the answer of the first problem of statement. For more complete indicator is shown by Table IV above.
2.      There is no significant problem of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.
The researcher determines like that because there is just few problem which is found in applying Communicative Language Teaching which is applied with communicative activities. Basically, the problems which rise are the students are lack of vocabulary. But, this problem can be solved by giving common vocabularies which are usually and always used and suitable with communicative approach. Beside that, the students don’t realize about the main basic language realities. But, It can be solved by giving them the main basic language realities. Those language realities are language is speech, not writing¸ a Language is what its native speakers say, not what someone thinks they ought to say, languages are different, a language is a set of habit and teacher teaches the language, not about the language. The next problem which is the writer finds is the students don’t realize about the main purpose of learning language. But, it can be solved by telling them the main purpose of language learning. Those purposes of learning language are language is a system for the expression of meaning, the primary function of language is for communication and interaction, the structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses, the primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.
3.      There are many advantages of applying Communicative Language Teaching to improve the student’s speaking competence for the eighth year students of SMP Islamiyah Widodaren in academic year 2009/2010.
The writer states like that because when doing research, researcher finds so many advantages of applying Communicative Language Teaching.  Those advantages are students feel happy on learning English. They have great self confidence to say whatever they want to say in English. They like to consider English as their mother tongue. Students can compare their own language and the other language which are they learning about. They like to express something in english better than in their own language. Applying Communicative Language Teaching can improve student’s communicative competence, and so on.
Discussing about disadvantages, researcher don’t find the significant disadvantages.



CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter is divided into two parts, namely conclusion and suggestion. The conclusion is summary of the finding discussed in the previous chapter. These are the answers of the research problems. The suggestion contains some recommendations for the students and the English teacher.
A.    Conclusion
Based on the result of the Cycle Research on the chapter IV, all of the result of the research can be concluded as follows:
  1. The students who are taught using traditional method will not be able to reach the main goal of learning English, that is, students will feel far from getting speaking competence. It is shown by table I on the chapter IV. It means that the traditional method is not effective to improve student’s speaking competence in learning English.
  2. The students who are taught using communicative language teaching can reach the main goal of learning English well. Table II in the chapter IV shows that communicative language teaching which is applied with communicative activities causes the students to get the improvement on their speaking competence compared to teaching English using the traditional method.
  3. The students who are taught using communicative language teaching will be better than the students who are taught using traditional method in their speaking competence. It is shown by Table III in the chapter IV.
B.     Suggestion
Based on the conclusion of result at the Cycle Research, the writer can give some suggestions as follows:
  1. For the students
a.       The students should practice their speaking skill confidently and not care about the mistakes which they will make.
b.      The students must be active, creative and effective in learning English.
c.       The students have to have the self-government of studying English, because this case is very important to increase the result of the student’s study.
d.      The students should have the high desire to study English.
  1. For the teacher
a.       The teacher should motivate and support the students to learn more, so that the students are interested in learning English and they can improve their English mastery, especially in speaking.
b.      The teacher should create the interesting teaching learning activity in the classroom, so that the students will not feel bored to study.
c.       The teacher should use the various media in his teaching to provide stimulus that will create curiosity and interest.
d.      The teacher should be the good facilitator in learning English
e.       In teaching English, the teacher should do the following important principles:
1). The activity which is done by real communication to support the result of the study.
2). The activity using language to do the main assignments to improve the result of study.
3). The main language for the students to encourage learning process (main principle).
4). Using the authentic language to decides the best quick comparison to the goal of foreign/second language learning.
5). Work in pairs or work in group in the interactive communicative situation.
6). The exploration based on task-based exploration, negotiation, and problem solving.
  1. For the school
a.       The school should provide and improve school facilities such as the number of reading books in the library, reading source, and other teaching aids.
b.      The school should also make the language laboratory in order that the students can get more addition in their language learning


APPENDIX




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